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English: Occupations - Professions and Trades
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Here we’ll deal with the professional records of university alumnae, clergy, doctors, dentists, veterinarians, lawyers, musicians, and writers. Then we’ll move on to crafts and trades with an investigation of the apprenticeship system and the records available for the genealogist. This will by followed by a discussion of guilds and freeman and miscellaneous trade records.

Many of the basic sources for family history such as civil registration, censuses, parish registers and wills will mention the occupations followed by your ancestors. This course looks first at the many ways of finding out what they did, then mentions generally useful sources. This is followed by a study of the classification of occupations. Sections on training & qualification in trades and professions allow us to profitably use the records generated therein. An understanding of the role of the various occupational associations is the next topic.

The bulk of the text consists of nine main groups of trades and professions. These are agriculture, building, commercial services, domestic services, fishing & whaling, manufacture, merchants & retailers, mining & quarrying, and professional activities. For each category there is an introduction to the available printed and manuscript sources regarding the nature of the various professions and trades, and then some indication of what records survive on the actual men and women engaged therein. In a course of this size these descriptions have to be short but I have endeavoured to cover the main points of significance for the family historian. However, such brevity invites superficiality and glibness and we trust that the course material has been includes a significant body of reference material which will lead the student to more detailed treatments of each trade and profession.


Course Content

Module 1

Introduction
Finding Out What They Did
• The Sources
• Directories
• Trade & Street Directories
• Telephone Directories
• Dictionaries of Biography
 
All Kinds of Occupations
 
• Country Folk & Townspeople
• Bibliographies of Occupations
• Dictionaries of Occupations
• How Occupations Have Been Classified
• Multiple Occupations
 

Module 2
Training & Qualification
 
• The Apprenticeship System
• Trade Apprentices
• Trade Apprentice Indentures
• Trade Apprenticeship Records
• Indexes to Trade Apprentice Indentures
• Inland Revenue Apprenticeship Records
• Finding Trade Indentures & Apprenticeships
• Poor & Charity Apprentices
• Poor Apprentice Indentures
• Charity Apprentice Indentures
• Finding Pauper & Charity Indentures
• Indexes & Lists of Poor & Charity Apprenticeships
• Licences to Practice
• Archbishops' & Bishops' Licences
• Quarter Sessions Licences
• Schools & Universities
 

Module 3
Associations
 
• Guilds & Freemen
• Freemen, Burgesses & Citizens
 
How To Discover The Company
 
• Livery Companies of the City of London
• History of Livery Companies
• Activities of Livery Companies
• Membership of Livery Companies
• Records of Livery Companies
• Freedom of the City of London
• Guilds Outside London
• Town & City Guilds
• Town & City Freemen
• Professional Associations
• Trade Unions
 
On The Job
 
• Children and Women at Work
• Opportunities for Women
• Markets & Fairs
 

Module 4
Agriculture
 
• Agricultural Labourers
• Animal Husbandry
• Gamekeeping & Poaching
• Crop Husbandry
• Land & Machinery
• Gardeners & Nurserymen
 
Building
 
• Buildings
• Building Trades
• Other Building Projects
 

Module 5
Commercial Service
 
• Auctioning
• Cleaning Services
• General Labourers
• Hairdressing & Wigmaking
• Keeping Lodgers
• Painters & Paperers
• Porters
• Vermin Control
• Telecommunications
• Undertaking
 
Domestic Service
• Economic Contribution of Women
• Homemakers
• Royal Warrant Holders & Royal Household Servants
• Servants
 
Fishing & Whaling
 
• Fishing
• Whaling & Sealing
 

Module 6
Manufacturing
 
• Animal Products
• Carts, Coaches, Wagons & Wheels
• Chemicals, Gas & Fuel
• Clocks, Watches, Eyeglasses & Jewellery
• Clothing & Needlecraft
• Earthenware
• Food & Drink
• Instruments & Toys
• Machinery, Guns & Munitions
• Metals
• Paper, Printing & Bookbinding
• Ship & Boat Building
• Textiles
• Tools & Sports Equipment
Wood & Plant Products
 

Module 7
Merchants & Retailers
 
• Merchants
• Retailers
• Clothing Materials & Dress
• Food & Drink
 
Mining & Quarrying
 
• Mining
• Quarrying & Working with Stone
• Stone Quarrying & Stone Masons
• Salt
 

Module 8
Professional
 
• Administration & Civil Servants
• Art & Amusement
• Dancers, Managers & other Stage Personnel in London, 1660-1800
• Education
• Law
• Medicine
• Religion
• Science & Engineering
• Sports
Conclusion
Appendix
 
• Occupational Indexes
• Addresses
 
Further Reading
 
 

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